地獄、審判和聖戰中令人驚奇的好消息

Trevin Wax

In Western society, if you talk to an unbeliever about a judgmental God who consigns people to a place called hell, you’ll likely encounter a raised eyebrow and a dismissive wave of the hand.Give us a god who approves of our way of life, who reserves punishment for only the worst of offenders, or who tolerates and forgives everyone!

在西方社會,如果你跟有關判斷神的異教徒誰托運人到了地獄的地方叫,你可能會遇到一個臭屁和手的不屑一顧浪潮。給我們一個神誰批准了我們的生活方式,誰有權處罰只是最壞的罪犯,或者誰容忍和寬恕大家!

基督徒的問題是,聖經沒有遵守神的形象。舊約聖經描述上帝命令他的人破壞國家和佔領他們的土地。新約聖經結束與神的火熱憤怒被傾倒在了世界。即使是“紅字基督徒”必須處理耶穌的比喻和警惕的判斷語句。如果你被迫要挑新約聖經人物誰最像一個“地獄火與硫磺”傳道,你可能不得不去與耶穌。

這也難怪基督徒都禁不住拋開這些困難的文本,必要時只能解決這些問題。但約書亞瑞安巴特勒認為,我們缺少一個機會和祝福。地獄,神聖的戰爭,判斷可能看起來像“骷髏神的衣櫃”,根據巴特勒的書名,但它是上帝誰想讓我們看到他的善良陳列在這些現實。巴特勒寫道:

“當正確的理解,這不只是個基督教信仰,我們可以學習到生活的;他們在整個我們(直譯)不能生活的故事,深刻的故事情節無“(二十八)。

骷髏在上帝的衣櫥是一個雄心勃勃的辯護工作。管家是不是滿足於只是捍衛傳統的基督教教義;他想顯示這些不受歡迎的,有爭議的教義是如何真正為世界的好消息。

巴特勒的方法是,首先,要解決基督教立場的漫畫。接下來,他闡明了基督教故事的整體框架內的傳統學說(為了給我們的解釋正確的鏡頭)。最後,他讓一個情感令人信服的理由地獄,判斷和聖戰。每章一環扣一環,如巴特勒仔細拆除聖經教導流行級別的扭曲,然後構建自己的地方一個強大的,聖經的觀點。

今天,我想總結一下巴特勒如何處理這三個要點:地獄,審判和聖戰,明天我會添加一些想法和一些注意事項,以巴特勒的建議。

地獄

地獄的諷刺是,上帝創造了一個地下刑訊室對所有非基督徒。基督教的故事是關於天堂和地獄;福音是關於如何進入前者,避免後者的新聞。

巴特勒放置地獄天地的聖經的更大的故事專櫃內的漫畫。基督徒相信天地是由上帝創造的,人類的罪四分五裂,但現在藉著基督的工作注定和解(8)。

在更大的“天上人間”的故事來看,到底是不是只是一個地方,更是一種力量。地獄被解開了在我們的世界,通過人類的罪惡,但上帝,通過贖罪犧牲和耶穌復活的勝利,已經承諾擺脫罪惡和死亡和陰間的世界。他會踢地獄的花園城市,他即將恢復。

“國王的回歸解放資本,樹立自己的好國,鑄就其所有頑固的對手……城外”(46)。

在此框架內,地獄的懲罰是,它是一個地方遏制,保護神的新的世界,從邪惡一切力量,誰留在反抗上帝的人的一種方式。誰拒絕神的報價救贖人類接受他們的心願 – 沒有神的世界裡,痛苦的世界(而不是折磨),其中罪的破壞力引導到永遠的毀滅。

判斷

天上的漫畫是在天空中的精英鄉村俱樂部的人誰相信耶穌的教義的權利。巴特勒通過展示櫃這個肖像是如何神的審判帶來了令人驚訝的結果,以及如何他的最終目標是要搶救脫離罪的廢墟的國家和人民恢復自己和彼此。

依托耶穌的比喻和約翰的願景啟示,巴特勒天說,作為一個婚宴,而所有被邀請。但上帝對誰想要在他的慶祝闖入了“婚禮傲客”經過判斷。

由此看來,神的審判是永遠不會從他的愛離婚。事實上,我們真正愛的理解加深,一旦我們認識到神反對人類的罪惡。巴特勒寫道:

“上帝站在對我們不公,因為他確定了戀愛與那些我們違背。上帝的愛不僅僅是一個舒適;它是一種對抗。上帝的愛有牙“(159頁)。

上帝的姿勢是其他信仰的人,但他的國代表反對一切是錯誤的其他宗教,包括基督教與方面甚至基督徒妥協與世界堅持錯誤的意識形態。 “世界的希望是意識形態在基督的生命的死亡,”他說,(182)。

聖戰

聖戰的諷刺是,以色列需要的土地,襲擊和破壞的誰居住迦南的田園詩般的鄉村人。

巴特勒通過顯示以色列是如何在迦南陰影奴隸的烏合之眾帶計數器的漫畫。 “以色列遊行像大象下的腳螞蟻,”他寫道(213)。舊約神聖的戰爭是上帝的故事代表弱者對強者的暴政升騰起來。並在年底的時候即將到來的聖戰是當上帝會減少人為帝國夷為平地,並建立他不甘心的世界。

結論

明天,我將做出關於巴特勒的方法和結論的一些意見,繼續他的書開始談話的希望。對於進入更詳細的總結,看看德里克Rishmawy的審查。

The problem for Christians is that the Bible doesn’t comply with this image of God. The Old Testament describes God commanding His people to destroy nations and occupy their land. The New Testament ends with God’s fiery wrath being poured out on the world. Even “Red Letter Christians” must deal with Jesus’ parables and statements that warn against judgment. If you were forced to pick the New Testament character who most resembles a “hellfire and brimstone” preacher, you’d probably have to go with Jesus.

It’s no wonder Christians are tempted to set aside these difficult texts and only address them when necessary. But Joshua Ryan Butler believes we are missing an opportunity and a blessing. Hell, holy war, and judgment may seem like “skeletons in God’s closet,” according to the title of Butler’s book, but it’s God who wants us to see His goodness on display in these realities. Butler writes:

“When properly understood, these are not just pieces of the Christian faith we can learn to live with; they are profound plotlines in the story of the whole we (literally) cannot live without” (xxviii).

The Skeletons in God’s Closet is an ambitious work of apologetics. Butler isn’t satisfied with simply defending traditional Christian teaching; he wants to show how these unpopular, controversial doctrines are actually good news for the world.

Butler’s method is, first, to address the caricature of the Christian position. Next, he articulates the traditional doctrine within the overall framework of the Christian story (in order to give us the proper lens of interpretation). Finally, he makes an emotionally compelling case for hell, judgment, and holy war. Each chapter builds on the next, as Butler carefully dismantles popular-level distortions of biblical teaching and then constructs a robust, biblical viewpoint in their place.

Today, I want to summarize how Butler handles each of these three points: Hell, Judgment, and Holy War and tomorrow I’ll add some thoughts and a few caveats to Butler’s proposal.

Hell

The caricature of hell is that God has created an underground torture chamber for all non-Christians. The Christian story is about heaven and hell; the gospel is news about how to get into the former and avoid the latter.

Butler counters the caricature by placing hell within the Bible’s bigger story of heaven and earth.Christians believe heaven and earth were created by God, torn apart by human sin, but are now destined for reconciliation through the work of Christ (8).

Seen within the bigger “heaven and earth” story, hell is not just a place, but also a power. Hell was unleashed in our world through human sin, but God, through the atoning sacrifice and victorious resurrection of Jesus, has promised to rid the world of sin and death and hell. He will kick hell out of the garden city He is coming to restore.

“The King is returning to liberate the capital, establish his good kingdom, and cast all its stubborn opponents… outside the city” (46).

Within this framework, the punishment of hell is that it is a place of containment, a way of protecting God’s new world from all the forces of evil and the humans who remain in rebellion against God. Humans who reject God’s offer of salvation receive their wish – a world without God, a world of torment (not torture) in which the destructive power of sin leads to everlasting ruin.   

Judgment

The caricature of heaven is an elite country club in the sky for people who believe the right doctrines about Jesus. Butler counters this portrait by showing how God’s judgment brings surprising results, and how His ultimate goal is to rescue the nations from sin’s ruin and restore people to Himself and to one another.

Relying on Jesus’ parables and John’s vision in Revelation, Butler speaks of heaven as a wedding feast to which all are invited. But God passes judgment on the “wedding crashers” who want to intrude upon His celebration.

Seen in this light, God’s judgment is never divorced from His love. In fact, our understanding of real love is deepened once we recognize God’s opposition to human sinfulness. Butler writes:

“God stands against our injustice because he identifies in love with those we violate. God’s love is more than a comfort; it is a confrontation. God’s love has teeth” (159).

God’s posture is for people of other faiths, but His kingdom stands against all that is wrong in other religions, including Christianity and the ways even Christians compromise with the world by adhering to false ideologies. “The hope of the world is the death of ideology in the life of Christ,” he says (182).

Holy War

The caricature of holy war is that Israel, in need of land, raids and destroys the people who inhabit the idyllic countryside of Canaan.

Butler counters the caricature by showing how Israel was a ragtag band of slaves in the shadow of Canaan. “Israel marches in like ants under elephants’ feet,” he writes (213). The Old Testament holy war is a story of God rising up on behalf of the weak against the tyranny of the strong. And the coming holy war at the end of time is when God will reduce human empires to rubble and establish His reconciled world.

Conclusion

Tomorrow, I’m going to make a few observations about Butler’s methods and conclusions, in hopes of continuing the conversation his book begins. For a summary that goes into more detail, check out Derek Rishmawy’s review.

Copyright, thegospelcoalition.org

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